Operating System (OS)

 साफ्टवेयर (Software) : 

  • Software refers to the set of instructions, programs, or applications that run on a computer or other devices to perform specific tasks.
  • Software is the instructions that are given to the hardware to perform a specified task.
  • Software is that part of the computer which we cannot touch.
  • Generally, the terms program, application and software refer to the same thing.

Program :

  • A set of instructions designed to accomplish a specific task is called a program.

Programmer :

  • It is a computer software specialist who prepares software code or programs to accomplish a specific task, tests it, and identifies and corrects bugs.
  • The computer programmer considers all the possibilities that may arise during the execution of the program.
  • Debugging :
    • Debugging is the process of identifying and resolving issues, errors, or bugs in software code or hardware systems.
    • Debugging is typically performed by software developers, engineers, or system administrators.

Excutable Program :

  • The software program which can be executed by the computer processor and gives the desired result is called Excutable Program.
  •  extension name of  program file is .exe.
  • When the hardware follows the instructions of the software program to complete a task, it is said to run or execute the program.

Types of Software – Three Types

  • 1. System Software
  • 2. Application Software 
  • 3. Utility Software

System Software

  • This type of software is responsible for managing the computer’s hardware, providing a platform for other software to run on, and facilitating communication between hardware components.
  • सिस्टम साफ्टवेयर के उदाहरण हैं
    • Windows, macOS, DOS, Unix, Macintosh,Linux, आदि।
  • सिस्टम साफ्टवेयर को मुख्यतः दो भागों में बांटा जाता है
    • 1. Operating System Software
    • 2. Language Translator Software

ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम (Operating System) : 

  • ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम प्रोग्रामों का वह समूह है जो कम्प्यूटर सिस्टम तथा उसके विभिन्न संसाधनों के कार्यों को नियंत्रित करता है तथा हार्डवेयर, अप्लिकेशन साफ्टवेयर तथा उपयोगकर्ता के बीच संबंध स्थापित करता है। 
  • यह विभिन्न अप्लिकेशन प्रोग्राम के बीच समन्वय भी स्थापित करता है। 
  • ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम के बिना हार्डवेयर किसी अप्लिकेशन प्रोग्राम को क्रियान्वित नहीं कर सकता। 
  • अधिकांश ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम के साथ कुछ अप्लिकेशन साफ्टवेयर जैसे- Video Player, Web  Browser, Calculator आदि पहले से ही बने होते हैं। 

आपरेटिंग सिस्टम के मुख्य कार्य हैं

  • कम्प्यूटर चालू किये जाने पर साफ्टवेयर को द्वितीयक मेमोरी से लेकर प्राथमिक मेमोरी में डालना तथा कुछ मूलभूत क्रियाएं स्वतः प्रारंभ करना। 
  • हार्डवेयर और उपयोगकर्ता के बीच संबंध स्थापित करना। 
  • हार्डवेयर संसाधनों का नियंत्रण तथा बेहतर उपयोग सुनिश्चित करना। 
  • अप्लिकेशन साफ्टवेयर के क्रियान्वयन के लिए पृष्ठभूमि तैयार करना। 
  • मेमोरी और फाइल प्रबंधन करना तथा मेमोरी और स्टोरेज डिस्क के बीच डाटा का आदान-प्रदान करना। 
  • हार्डवेयर व साफ्टवेयर से संबंधित कम्प्यूटर के विभिन्न दोषों (errors) को इंगित करना। 
  • कम्प्यूटर साफ्टवेयर तथा डाटा को अवैध प्रयोग से सुरक्षित रखना तथा इसकी चेतावनी (Warning) देना। 

Some examples of major operating systems are

  • MS DOS
  • Apple – Mac OS 
  • microsoft windows -Windows 95, 98, 2000, ME-Millennium, XP, Windows Vista, Windows7, Windows 10.
  • Unix : Written in C Language
  • Xenix 
  • Google Chrome os 
  • Android OS (for mobile phone)
  • (Linux) is a powerful operating system similar to Windows which is available free of cost while Windows requires a fee. Despite this, the prevalence of Linux is limited.

  • FreeBSD

Application Software:

  • Application software refers to programs and applications designed to perform specific tasks or solve particular problems for end-users.
  • Examples include word processors
    • (e.g., Microsoft Word, Google Docs)
    • spreadsheets (e.g., Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets)
    • web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox)
    • image editing software (e.g., Adobe Photoshop)
    • video players (e.g., VLC Media Player).

Software can be further categorized based on its distribution and usage:

  • Freeware: Software that is available for free and can be used without any payment.
  • Shareware: Software that is typically free to try for a limited period, after which a fee is required for continued usage.
  • Open-source: Software whose source code is made available to the public, allowing users to view, modify, and distribute it freely.
  • Proprietary: Software that is owned by a specific company and is subject to copyright and licensing restrictions.