Metals Minerals Ores and Their Properties

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  • Metals are typically found on the left side and toward the bottom of the periodic table.
  • They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Metals are malleable and ductile, meaning they can be hammered into thin sheets (malleability) and drawn into wires (ductility).
  • They have a shiny and lustrous appearance when freshly polished (metallic luster).
  • Metals tend to have high melting and boiling points.
  • Most metals are solid at room temperature, with the exception of mercury (Hg), which is a liquid.
  • They tend to form cations (positively charged ions) when they undergo chemical reactions.
  • Examples of metals include iron (Fe), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), and silver (Ag).
  • Smelting is a metallurgical process that involves extracting metal from its ore by heating the ore to a high temperature in the presence of a reducing agent.


  • Nonmetals are primarily found on the right side of the periodic table.
  • They are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Nonmetals can exist in various physical states at room temperature, including solids (e.g., sulfur), liquids (e.g., bromine), and gases (e.g., oxygen and nitrogen).
  • They often have lower melting and boiling points compared to metals.
  • Nonmetals can gain electrons to form anions (negatively charged ions) during chemical reactions.
  • Examples of nonmetals include oxygen (O), sulfur (S), nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and fluorine (F).

Metalloids (Semimetals):

  • Metalloids are elements that exhibit properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals.
  • They are typically found along the “staircase” on the periodic table, which separates metals on the left from nonmetals on the right.
  • Metalloids often have semiconducting properties, making them useful in electronics.
  • They may display characteristics such as intermediate electrical conductivity, variable physical states, and varying reactivity.
  • Examples of metalloids include silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te).

Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic substances that have a crystalline structure and a specific chemical composition. They are the building blocks of rocks and are found in the Earth’s crust.

Lithium (Li):

  • Atomic number – 3
  • lightest metal in the Earth

Osmium (Os):

  • Atomic number – 76
  • Heaviest metal in the Earth.
    • The heaviest natural element is Uranium.

Sodium (Na):

  • Atomic number – 11
  • electronic configuration is 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s¹
  • Sodium is extracted from sea water
  • it can be cut with a knife

Potassium (K):

  • Atomic number – 19
  • it melts when placed on the palm
  • It is used in gunpowder

Magnesium (Mg):

  • Atomic number – 12
  • Ores
  • Magnesium is a light and reactive metal. It is used in alloys, particularly in the aerospace industry, and in various applications such as automotive parts and electronic devices.

Calcium (Ca):

  • Atomic number –  20
  • Ores
  • Calcium is an essential element for living organisms, playing a vital role in bone and teeth formation, muscle function, and nerve transmission. It’s also used in construction materials like cement.

Aluminum (Al):

  • Atomic number –  13
  • electronic configuration is 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p¹
  • Ores
  • Aluminum is a lightweight, corrosion-resistant metal used in a wide range of applications, including packaging (aluminum foil), transportation (aircraft, automobiles), and construction.

Lead (Pb):

  • Atomic number –  82
  • Ores

Copper (Cu):

  • Atomic number – 29
  • electronic configuration of copper is [Ar] 3d¹⁰ 4s¹
  • Ores
  • Copper is a versatile metal known for its excellent electrical conductivity. It is used in electrical wiring, plumbing, and various industrial applications.

Silver (Ag):

  • Atomic number – 47
  • Ores
  • Silver is a precious metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. It is used in jewelry, coins, photography, and electronics.

Zinc (Zn):

  • Atomic number – 30
  • Ores
  • Zinc is a metal used for galvanizing steel to prevent corrosion. It is also an essential micronutrient for living organisms.

Mercury (Hg):

  • Atomic number – 80
  • Ores
  • Mercury is a toxic heavy metal that is liquid at room temperature. It is used in thermometers, barometers, and certain electrical switches, although its use has been greatly reduced due to its toxicity.

Manganese (Mn):

  • Atomic number – 25
  • Ores
  • Manganese is a transition metal used in the production of steel and other alloys. It is also an essential trace element for humans and animals.

Iron (Fe):

  • Atomic number – 26
  • electronic configuration of iron is [Ar] 3d⁶ 4s².
  • Ores
  • Iron is one of the most abundant and widely used metals.
  • It is essential for the production of steel, which is used in construction, transportation, and many other industries.

Gold (Au):

  • Atomic number – 79
  • Ores
  • Gold is a precious metal known for its beauty and rarity.
  • It is used in jewelry, currency (gold coins), and in various high-end electronics and aerospace applications.

Platinum (Pt):

  • Atomic number – 78
  • Ores
    • Sperrylite (platinum arsenide mineral (PtAs2))
    • Cooperite
    • Braggite
  • Platinum is a precious metal with excellent catalytic properties.
  • It is used in the automotive industry (catalytic converters), jewelry, and as a catalyst in chemical reactions.

Tungston (W):

  • Atomic number – 74
  • Ores
  • Hardest Metal in the Earth.
    • Among all natural materials, Diamond is hardest but Diamond is non metal.
  • It is a dense, heavy metal .
  • Tungsten has an extremely high melting point of 3,422 degrees Celsius (6,192 degrees Fahrenheit), which is higher than most other elements.


  • Nichrome is a non-magnetic alloy of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr).
  • Nichrome has a high electrical resistance, which means it resists the flow of electric current. This property allows nichrome wire to heat up when an electric current passes through it. It is used in various heating applications, including in electric stoves, toasters, and heating coils.
  • Nichrome has a high melting point, used in heating elements and resistance wires.
  • Nichrome is Very Hard and Very ductile Material.

the costliest materials in the world is Endohedral Fullerene. its Cost per gram is 167 Million.

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