Man Made Chemical Substances

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Anesthetic medicines : 

  • Anesthetic medicines are drugs or agents used to induce a state of anesthesia, which is a controlled and reversible loss of sensation or consciousness.
  • Anesthesia is employed during medical procedures, surgeries, and other interventions to alleviate pain, sedate patients, and enable the medical team to perform procedures safely and effectively.
  • Diethyl ether was first used as an anesthetic by William Mortan in 1846, followed by James Sampson in 1847 with chloroform.
  • There are three main categories of anesthetic medicines:
  • Inhalation Anesthetics: These are gases or volatile liquids that patients inhale to induce anesthesia. Examples include: Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, Desflurane
  • Intravenous (IV) Anesthetics: These are administered through intravenous injection to induce and maintain anesthesia. Examples include:, Propofol, Thiopental, Ketamine, Etomidate.

Antibiotics : 

  • Antibiotics are a class of pharmaceutical drugs used to treat bacterial infections.
  • They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth and reproduction (bacteriostatic).
  • Antibiotics are typically chemical compounds produced by microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, or molds)
  • Common Antibiotics:
    • Penicillins:  First Antibiotic Developed by Alexander Flaming in 1929.
      • Include drugs like amoxicillin and penicillin G.

Antiseptics : 

  • Antiseptics are chemical substances or compounds that are used to disinfect and clean living tissues, primarily the skin and mucous membranes.
  • They are applied topically to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) on the skin’s surface or within wounds and mucous membranes.
  • Common Antiseptics  ; Vinegar, Cedar’s Oil, Hydrogen Peroxide.

Antipyretics : 

  • Antipyretics are a class of medications that are used to reduce fever (pyrexia) and alleviate associated symptoms such as headache, muscle aches, and discomfort. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol), Diclofenac, Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin).

Sulfonamide drugs, often referred to as sulfa drugs or sulphonamides, are a class of synthetic antimicrobial agents used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.


  • Rubber is used elastomer—a polymer with elastic properties that allow it to return to its original shape after deformation.
  • Rubber is typically classified into two main types: natural rubber and synthetic rubber.
  • Vulcanization is a chemical process used to make Rubber Hard and improve the properties of rubber, making it more durable, elastic, and resistant to heat, chemicals, and aging. It was discovered by Charles Goodyear. Sulfur is the primary vulcanizing agent.
  • Natural Rubber:
    • Source:  latex sap of rubber trees, primarily Hevea brasiliensis. The sap is collected by tapping the tree’s bark, and it contains natural polymer chains of isoprene.
  • Synthetic Rubber:
    • Source: Synthetic rubber is made through chemical processes in laboratories and industrial facilities. Common subtypes of synthetic rubber include:
      • Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR),
      • Polybutadiene Rubber (BR):
      • Neoprene (Polychloroprene):
      • Nitrile Rubber (NBR):
      • Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM):
      • Chloroprene Rubber (CR):
      • Silicone Rubber:
      • Fluoroelastomers (Viton):
      • Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber, NBR):


  • Fertilizers are substances added to soil or plants to provide essential nutrients that are necessary for plant growth and development.
  • These nutrients include macronutrients (required in larger quantities) and micronutrients (required in smaller quantities).
  • Fertilizers are used in agriculture and gardening to enhance soil fertility and promote plant health. Here are some common types of fertilizers:

Macronutrient Fertilizers:

  • Nitrogen Fertilizers: Nitrogen is a crucial nutrient for plant growth, as it is a component of proteins, enzymes, and chlorophyll. Common nitrogen fertilizers include urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and calcium nitrate.
  • Phosphorus Fertilizers: Phosphorus is essential for root development, energy transfer, and flower and fruit production. Common phosphorus fertilizers include superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate.
  • Potassium Fertilizers: Potassium helps regulate water uptake, enzyme activity, and overall plant health. Common potassium fertilizers include potassium chloride (muriate of potash) and potassium sulfate.
  • Secondary Macronutrient Fertilizers: These include calcium, magnesium, and sulfur fertilizers, which are required in moderate amounts. Examples include calcium carbonate, dolomite, and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt).

Micronutrient Fertilizers:

  • Iron Fertilizers: Iron is essential for chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis. Iron sulfate or chelated iron compounds are used as iron fertilizers.
  • Zinc Fertilizers: Zinc is necessary for enzyme activity and overall plant growth. Zinc sulfate and zinc chelates are common zinc fertilizers.
  • Copper Fertilizers: Copper is required in small amounts for enzyme function. Copper sulfate and copper chelates are used as copper fertilizers.
  • Manganese Fertilizers: Manganese is essential for photosynthesis and enzyme activation. Manganese sulfate is a common manganese fertilizer.
  • Boron Fertilizers: Boron is involved in cell division and the transport of sugars. Borax and boron chelates are used as boron fertilizers.
  • Molybdenum Fertilizers: Molybdenum is required for nitrogen fixation in legumes. Sodium molybdate is a common molybdenum fertilizer.
  • Organic Fertilizers: Organic fertilizers are derived from natural sources, such as compost, manure, bone meal, and fish emulsion. They release nutrients slowly as they break down and improve soil structure and microbial activity.
  • Liquid Fertilizers: Liquid fertilizers are dissolved in water and can be applied directly to the soil or sprayed onto plant foliage.
    • They are often used for foliar feeding and are available in various formulations to target specific nutrient needs.


  • Ordinary glass is a solid solution (mixture) of silica (SiO2), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), and calcium silicate.
  • Use of raw materials in the manufacture of glass – sand, soda and quartz
  • Glass is a supercooled liquid in the form of an amorphous solid.
  • Glass does not have a crystalline structure.
  • There is no definite melting point of glass.
  • Glass does not have a definite chemical formula, because glass is a mixture, not a compound.
  • Fiber glass is used in making bullet-proof jackets.
  • Glass annealing: Annealing is a heat treatment process used to relieve internal stresses and improve the mechanical and thermal properties of glass. Glass annealing involves slowly cooling the glass from a high temperature to room temperature
  • Glass color: To give color to glass, metal compounds are added in small quantities.
  • Fluorine is used to make images on glass.
  • Photochromatic glass automatically darkens in sunlight due to the presence of silver bromide.



  • Soap is used for cleaning, personal hygiene, and various other purposes.
  • It is a surfactant, which means it helps to reduce the surface tension of water and enables it to spread and penetrate materials more effectively.
  • Composition: Soap is typically made from natural fats or oils and an alkali (such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide).
    • When these ingredients are combined in a chemical process called saponification, they undergo a reaction that transforms them into soap molecules and glycerin.
  • Soap Molecules: A soap molecule consists of a hydrophilic (water-attracting)head” and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) “tail.
    • The hydrophobic tail is typically composed of a long hydrocarbon chain, often derived from fatty acids
    • while the hydrophilic head contains an ionic or polar group (such as a sodium or potassium ion).
    • This unique structure allows soap to interact with both water and oil-based substances.
  • Soap reacts with calcium and magnesium salts present in hard water, due to which soap does not lather in hard water and cleaning becomes difficult.

hard soap

    • Those soaps which are sodium salts (caustic soda) of higher fatty acids are called hard soaps.
    • They are used for washing clothes.

soft soap

  • Those soaps which are potassium salts of higher fatty acids (caustic potash) are called soft soaps.
  • They are used for bathing.

Soft Water:

  • Soft water contains low concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions. These minerals are responsible for water hardness.
  • Characteristics:
  • It lathers easily with soap, forming a lot of suds.
  • It does not leave mineral deposits (scale) on surfaces like faucets, pipes, and appliances.
  • It feels “slippery” when washing because soap reacts readily with the ions in soft water.
  • Benefits:
  • Soft water is gentle on skin and hair, often leaving them feeling smoother and less dry.
  • It reduces the need for excessive soap or detergent use when washing clothes and dishes.
  • Soft water can prolong the lifespan and efficiency of water heaters, appliances, and plumbing systems by preventing scale buildup.

Hard Water:

  • Hard water contains elevated levels of calcium and magnesium ions,  dissolved .
  • Characteristics:
  • It does not lather well with soap, requiring more soap to produce suds.
  • It can leave mineral deposits (scale) on plumbing fixtures, appliances, and dishes.
  • Hard water can sometimes lead to a buildup of scale in water heaters and pipes, reducing their efficiency.
  • Challenges:
  • Hard water can create soap scum on surfaces, making cleaning more challenging.
  • Scale buildup can clog pipes and reduce the efficiency of water-using appliances.
  • It may require more detergent and cleaning products to achieve desired results in laundry and cleaning.



  • Detergents are ammonium and sulphonate salts of long carboxylic acid chains.
  • They do not form insoluble substances with calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water. Hence they remain effective even in hard water.
  • Examples of these are sodium alkyl sulfonate, sodium alkyl benzene sulfonate etc.
  • The substance mixed with detergent and enzymes gives a very clean wash. This type of washing is called micro system washing.
  • The action of removing the scum of soap and detergent in water is due to the formation of micelle.
  • Detergents are generally used in making shampoos and laundry products.




  • it was invented by Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in  1867
  • Composition: Nitroglycerin,
  • In modern dynamite, sodium nitride is used instead of nitroglycerin.



  • commonly known as TNT
  • Chemical Formula:  C7H5N3O6, indicating its composition of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O).
  • It is made by the reaction of concentrated H2SO4 and concentrated HNO3 with toluene (C6H5CH3).


Tri-nitro-phenol (TNP)

  • It is also called picric acid.
  • It is prepared by the action of phenol and concentrated HNO3 acid.
  • Tri-Nitro-Glycerine (TNG)
  • It is a colorless oily liquid.
  • It is also called noble oil.
  • It is used to make dynamite.
  • It is made by reacting concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) with glycerin.


RDX – Research and Developed Explosive

  • The full name of R.D.X. is Research and Developed Explosive.
  • chemical name – cyclo-trimethylene-trinitramine.
  • It is also called plastic explosive.
  • Other Names
    • USA – Cyclonite
    • Germany – Hexogen
    • Italy – T-4
  •  In R.D.X. aluminum powder is added  to increase the temperature and speed of fire, .
  • It was discovered in 1899 by Hans Henning of Germany in the form of a pure white granular powder.


Gun Powder : 

  • It was discovered by Roger Bacon.
  • Gunpowder, also known as black powder, is a chemical mixture that was discovered in ancient China.
  • Potassium nitrate is used in making it.


  • Polymers are large molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers.
  • These molecules can be composed of thousands to millions of monomer units, which are chemically bonded together in long chains or networks.
  • Monomers: Monomers are small, simple molecules that can join together to form a polymer chain.
    • Common monomers –  ethylene (for polyethylene), vinyl chloride (for PVC), and styrene (for polystyrene).
  • Polymerization: The process of linking monomers together to create a polymer is called polymerization. There are two main types of polymerization:
    • Addition Polymerization: Monomers with double bonds (unsaturated) are added to form the polymer chain. Examples include polyethylene and polypropylene.
    • Condensation Polymerization: Monomers with functional groups (e.g., -OH, -NH2) react with the elimination of a small molecule (often water or methanol). Examples include nylon and polyester.
  • Polymers Classification: Polymers can be classified into several categories based on their properties and uses:
  • Thermoplastics:
    • These polymers can be melted and reshaped multiple times without significant degradation.
    • Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and PVC.
  • Thermosetting Plastics:
    • These polymers undergo irreversible cross-linking during curing and cannot be melted or reshaped once formed.
    • Examples include epoxy resins and phenolic resins.
  • Elastomers:
    • These polymers have rubber-like properties, offering elasticity and flexibility.
    • Examples include natural rubber and synthetic rubber (e.g., neoprene).
  • Fibers:
    • These polymers have a high aspect ratio and are used in textiles and composites.
    • Examples include nylon, polyester, and Kevlar.
  • Applications: Polymers are used in a vast range of applications:
  • In everyday products such as plastic bottles, bags, and containers (polyethylene and polypropylene).
  • In construction materials like PVC pipes and insulation.
  • In the automotive industry for parts like tires, bumpers, and interior components.
  • In the medical field for prosthetics, medical devices, and drug delivery systems.
  • In the aerospace industry for lightweight composites.
  • In electronics for insulating materials and flexible circuits.
  • In the food industry for packaging materials.
  • Biopolymers: Some polymers are derived from natural sources and are biodegradable. Examples include cellulose (from plants), chitin (from crustacean shells), and starch-based polymers.


Cements : 

  • Cements are binding materials that are used to make concrete, mortar, and other construction materials by mixing them with water and aggregates (such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone).
  • Raw Materials Used :
    • limestone (calcium carbonate – CaCO3 )
    • Gypsum : calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O)
    • claysilica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3)
  • The production of cement in India was first started in Chennai in 1984.
  • The main function of gypsum in cement is to slow down the setting.
  • Alumina is used to set the cement quickly.
  • There are various types of cements, each with specific properties and applications. Here are some of the most common types:
    • Portland Cement: It is composed mainly of calcium silicates and is produced by heating a mixture of limestone (calcium carbonate) and clay (or other materials rich in silica, alumina, and iron) to high temperatures in a kiln.
    • White Cement: White cement is similar to Portland cement but contains fewer iron and manganese compounds, resulting in a white or light gray color.

Petroleum, often referred to as crude oil /Liquid Gold/ Black Gold, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel. It is a complex mixture of organic compounds primarily composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms, with smaller amounts of other elements such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen.

Petroleum Extraction and Refining:

  • Drilling: Petroleum is extracted from underground reservoirs through drilling wells. This process can involve onshore or offshore drilling, depending on the location of the reserves.
  • Transportation: After extraction, crude oil is transported to refineries via pipelines, tankers, or other means.
  • Refining: At refineries, crude oil is processed through various refining techniques to separate it into different fractions, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and others.
    • Fractional distillation is a separation process used to separate a mixture of two or more liquids with different boiling points into their individual components, or fractions.
    • This technique is commonly used in the petrochemical industry to refine crude oil into various petroleum products
  • Products obtained through fractional distillation in various applications:
  • Petroleum Refining:
    • Gasoline (Mixture of Petrol and Alcohol): Obtained as one of the top fractions with a relatively low boiling point.
    • Kerosene: Used as fuel and for heating.
    • Diesel Fuel: Used in diesel engines.
    • Lubricating Oils: Obtained from higher-boiling fractions.
    • Heavy Fuel Oil: Used in industrial applications and as bunker fuel for ships.
    • Asphalt: Used for road construction and roofing materials.
    • Bitumen: Used for pavement and roofing.
  • Alcohol Distillation:
    • Ethanol: The top fraction with a lower boiling point, often used for alcoholic beverages and as an industrial solvent.
    • Methanol: Obtained at a lower boiling point than ethanol and used as an industrial solvent, antifreeze, and fuel additive.
    • Higher Alcohols: Obtained from higher-boiling fractions and used in various industrial applications.

Knocking (Engine Knock): Engine knocking, also known as “knock,” “pinging,” or “detonation,” refers to the undesirable and audible metallic knocking or pinging sound that occurs inside an internal combustion engine during the combustion process. It is caused by the premature ignition of the air-fuel mixture in one or more cylinders of the engine before the spark plug fires. Engine knock can have detrimental effects on engine performance and longevity. Key points about engine knocking include:

Octane Number: The octane number is a rating system used to measure the anti-knock properties or resistance to engine knock of a specific gasoline or fuel. It quantifies how well a fuel resists knocking when used in a high-compression engine. There are two common methods for determining the octane number: the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON).

  • compounds and additives used to increase the octane number of gasoline:
    • Tetraethyl Lead (TEL):
    • Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT):
    • Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol):
    • Methanol (Methyl Alcohol):
    • Fuel Additives: toluene, xylene, and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE).
    • Aromatics: benzene, toluene, and xylene.

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